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Showing posts from April, 2022

What is Availability heuristic?

  Definition of Availability heuristic  The availability heuristic refers to a cognitive bias in which one reasons or makes inferences based on easily remembered information or recently encountered information. It is also called the ease heuristic because it evaluates based on information that is easy to remember.   Features of the Availability heuristic      The availability heuristic makes us prefer information that can be easily figured out over objective information or statistics.      Limited rationality leads to availability heuristics. In other words, the availability heuristic is in contrast to rational judgment.      Humans have been learning the availability heuristic to make quick decisions in hunting and gathering for thousands of years. If you try to make rational judgments even in your daily thoughts, you will be wasting time and mentality.       The availability heuristic leads to overestimating the big things that rarely happen over the small things that happen often. E

What is Pseudocertainty effect?

  Definition of Pseudocertainty effect The pseudocertainty effect refers to the phenomenon of mistaking the uncertain for the certain. Because it is false certainty, it is also called the quasi-certainty effect or the false certainty effect. Features of the Pseudocertainty effect     The Pseudocertainty effect creates a tendency to ignore probabilities.     The Pseudocertainty effect makes it impossible to make rational judgments about probabilities.     The Pseudocertainty effect leads to hasty decisions. Examples of Pseudocertainty effects   The Pseudocertainty effect is easily seen in advertising or marketing. Most of the events that are written as 100% winning like the above phrase require additional conditions. Alternatively, the quality or price of the product itself may be different. For example,   As such, the smartphone or smartwatch that many people want is given to only a small fraction of the lottery, and 100 points are given to all participants, giving the phrase 100% winn

What is the naturalistic fallacy?

   Definition of the naturalistic fallacy The naturalistic fallacy is the fallacy of drawing conclusions from natural premises. The naturalistic fallacy leads to ignoring scientific facts. Characteristics of the naturalistic fallacy  The naturalistic fallacy is the fallacy in which phenomena are the conclusion. The fallacy of naturalism can be seen as an inversion of the moralist fallacy. It creates an error of ignoring human morality or ethics by making conclusions based on circumstances, past situations, and instincts. The naturalistic fallacy is used to condemn eugenics or minorities. Examples of the naturalistic fallacy     "From a long time ago, in our company, new hires worked for only $100. You should also receive only $100." The above example is an example of a typical naturalistic fallacy. Company customs cannot always be correct. It is a naturalistic error to come up with a natural order or custom that "it was the company's custom to work for 100 dollars&qu

What is gaslighting? (psychological domination)

  Definition of Gaslighting  Gaslighting is called psychological domination. Gaslighting refers to the act of guiding the behavior of the other person in the direction you want.  Gaslighting exploits human biases or attribution errors.   Conditions of Gaslighting  There are three main requirements for gaslighting. The three requirements are a close relationship with the victim, the victim's mistakes, and the victim's anxiety.   Steps of gaslighting     Close relationship between victim and perpetrator  First of all, a close relationship between the victim and the perpetrator must be premised. A close relationship relieves the victim's vigilance. They demand submission or submission from others, mainly through sympathy or excuses such as “It's all because I'm thinking of you” or “that’s what I can do better.”     Destroyed victim's self-esteem and learned helplessness If the victim and the offender form a close relationship through the above process, the victim&#

What is affect heuristic? (emotional heuristic)

   Definition of affect heuristic Affect heuristic is a cognitive bias in which judgments and choices are made based on emotions. Affect heuristic is similar to choosing to avoid loss, as it is the bias that arises from loss aversion. It is also called emotional heuristic because it makes emotional judgments. Features of affect heuristic Affect heuristic causes emotional thinking to take precedence over rational thinking. Affect heuristic can also be caused by the atmosphere or use of words. Affect heuristic makes you more likely to agree with your likes and less likely to agree with your dislikes. Affect heuristic causes emotions or feelings to be more important than objective information or facts. Examples of affect hueristic Affect heuristic is a bias that occurs in all real life. Affect heuristic arises from what you like and what you don't like. As in the example above, You prefer the unsubstantiated claims of the person you like to the logical claims of the person you don'